Digital Citizens


Digital Citizens

We are first year BDM students @Vega! Adam Stevenson Kerry Thomas Kylie Mitchell Robert Tsiliyiannis

Topics Related to Digital Health



2015’s Top 5 Cybersecurity Risks in South Africa

The Top 5 cybersecurity risks in 2015 are:

  1. Ransomware,
  2. The Internet of Things
  3. Cyber-espionage
  4. Increase in cyber theft and
  5. Insecure passwords

(CNBC, 2015)


Ransomware infects a computer and restricts the users access to it, a ransom is paid in order for user to be able to use their computer.

The Internet of Things is when devices are connected to the internet which increase the risk of personal details being obtained.

Cyber-espionage is when information is obtained through the internet for use by the government.

Cyber theft is the stealing of financial information through the internet, such as credit card details.

Insecure passwords are passwords which are easily obtainable based on the users tastes or preferences and whether the same password is used several times.


Users are constantly providing financial institutions with confidential, personal, information and so are put at risk when exchanging this information.

Users allow hackers to obtain these details by replying to emails which are not from the financial institutions itself. These emails are almost identical to the ones received form financial institutions and so users can be easily fooled.

A way to prevent this from happening is to always check that the email received has a valid email address. This will allow the user to determine whether the email is legitimate or not.

Another method used by hackers is creating a website that looks almost identical to the real one. User may believe that this website is legitimate and therefore enter personal details. Users can check the URL of the website to ensure that the website is indeed legitimate.

Having a strong password is important as it protects most of our confidential information. Users often use unsuitable passwords that can be easily determined based on the consumers tastes and preferences. Users often reuse passwords for several accounts which puts them at risk.

Hackers can send emails pretending ask personal questions while posing as a financial institution. This can be avoided by checking the email address of the email received.

Not only can users be at risk on the internet but when receiving phone calls as well. People may ask personal questions in order to determine their potential password.

This can be easily avoided by not giving out personal information over the phone. If an institution needs information they will often tell you to go in and resolve the issue.

Users should always keep on guard when online and always check what links they are clicking on and what files they are downloading. In order to protect your self, users are advised to download anti-virus software in order to protect your computer and confidential information.



CNBC. (2015). Top 5 cybersecurity risks for 2015. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 May 2016].

Potential Impacts of Digital Technology on Society


References: (2016). Amazingly Simple Graphic Design Software – Canva. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2016].

Point, M. (2015). Impact Of Technology On Our Society – Positive & Negative. [online] My Essay Point. Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2016].


Digital Rights & Responsibilities



Anon. 2015. Digital Citizenship. Module Manual. The Independent Institute of Education: unpublished.

Canva. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2016].

Digital Code of Conduct


(, 2016)

10 points of netiquette:

  1. When typing never type in all capitals, this is shouting and is rude.2
  2. Do not plagiarise because someone spent a long period of time working on the content that you just copy and pasta and claim it is yours.
  3. Use proper quotes and always use the whole quote.
  4. Do not gossip and keep personal information to your self.
  5. Do not steal photographs that are not yours unless you have permission and you give credit.
  6. Watch your language. Do not swear!
  7. Be patient with new users.
  8. No spamming. It is unwanted and annoying.
  9. If you are using a header make sure your content matches the header.
  10. Avoid overuse of emoticons. They are irritating.


Penalties for failing to meet netiquette:

  1. If these rules are not followed the first step would be to send the user an email stating that they are breaking the rules.
  2. The next step would be to limit their access to the internet.
  3. If the rules are still not followed the user would then need to attend a disciplinary hearing.
  4. If these steps have been unsuccessful  the final step would be to take legal action against the user.


How to enforce and manage Netiquette:

  1. Record all transactions and make sure you get a receipt.
  2. Use professional signatures on documents to provide legitimacy.
  3. Ask for clarification if you have any doubt about instructions to avoid miscommunication.
  4. Do not write in acronyms. It is childish in the work place unless it is specific jargon for your industry.
  5.  Double space paragraphs to make your drawings readable.
  6. Use descriptive headings.
  7. Use references.
  8. Businesses can adopt a strict code of digital conduct where they can monitor their employees actions and watch developing trends that may need to be put to an end.
  9. Although this might be extreme, businesses can spy on employees doings on the internet so that they can ensure all workers have a clear understanding of netiquette.

Digital Code of Conduct.png


References (2016). Digital Code of Conduct. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 May 2016].

Uticaod. (2016). Internet Etiquette – 10 Rules of Netiquette. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 May 2016].

The Social Economy: Unlocking the value through social technologies

Screen Shot 2016-05-23 at 5.14.20 PM


Positives of social technologies:

  • Individuals can now express themselves as it is easier to not feel embarrassed over the internet.
  • Individuals can learn about other peoples life by visiting their profiles e.g. friends, relationship status, address, number etc. It is easier for people to make friends on social networking sites because people speak more openly and freely.
  • Individuals can now keep in contact with family and friends if they live far away or are just on holiday. Instead of writing a letter to someone, that would only be received a month later, social networking is easy and instant and individuals can reach anyone in the world with an internet connection.
  • Social networking helps businesses market their goods or services more efficiently. Traditional marketing mediums where abandoned because they where too expensive. Social media is free and the only cost for business is energy and time.
  •  Social networking can unite people and communities who share a common interest, objective or goal. E.g.  a community for second hand clothes was created where people can browse on the page and look for clothing.
  • Social networking helps people keep in touch with what is happening in the world every minute. Everyone is informed immediately if their is a crisis.


Negatives of social technologies:

  • The most obviously negative about social technologies is cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is so prominent because individuals feel safe and anonymous behind a computer and feel that they will not be harmed. The only way for a bully to be stopped is to report him!
  • Social networking can ruin peoples relationships as people are constantly viewing new profile pictures, relationship statuses, new friends etc. which is causing people to get jealous if they find out, for example, your girlfriend exchanging messages with another man.
  • As useful social media is, it is addictive and people obviously abuse it and spend hours and hours or even the whole day constantly checking their social networking accounts. This can leads to health problems such a eye strain, repetitive strain injury, headaches, neck pain and even mental illness such as depression.
  • Security is a concern when social networking as all an individuals personal information is made readily available to all (Unless security settings are changed) which can pose a security risk. People can steal other people identity online and use their profiles as their own.
  •   Kids can be affected by using social media as their brains are not yet fully developed and people may share a violent image that encourages children to become violent.
  • Some social networking sites in certain businesses are being blocked because employees spend the whole working day on their social media and not doing their work. This leads to reduced productivity levels in the business.

Homo Naledi


Figure 1: Homo Naledi (YouTube, 2016)


Using the Information Fluency for the discovery of Homo Naledi – our new human relative:

Information fluency relates to our ability to instinctively and unconsciously elucidate information in all forms and formats to withdraw crucial knowledge so that one can extract the significance of the information to perform everyday tasks (IIE, 2015).

Because of the enormous amount of information readily available online and around us, it is easy to become lost within a sea of irrelevant or even outdated facts and data. So how do you know what information is admissible and which facts are still relevant?


Figure 2: Comparison of skull features of Homo naledi and other early human species (Natural History Museum, United Kingdom, 2015)

To determine this one needs to follow the information fluency process.
On the 10th of September 2015, it was announced that a new species of human ancestor was discovered. What made this discovery even more fascinating than just shedding light on where our species comes from, is the fact that this new species, Homo naledi as they called it, intentionally placed the bodies of its dead into a small chamber within the cradle of humankind. Although it had a small brain and body, this species seemed to be more human-like than most of the other Homo-classified species.

In light of this new information scientist needed to ASK themselves, when did it live? Where do they fit into our human family tree? And how did its bones get into this chamber? (Photograph Mark Thiessen and ELLIOT ROSS, 2015).

By asking the good questions, we will be able to get good answers (IIE, 2015).

Although the first discovery was made in 2013, the scientist had to ACQUIRE as much information as possible so that they could prioritise the search strategy to filter through the relevant information and take smart notes. Because of fossil records being rather ambiguous, scientists had to acquire information dating back to 1964 so that their findings could be thoroughly analysed.

Once they had the raw data and information, which was yielded from their search results, the scientists involved had to ANALYSE the said information so to create a cohesive picture of whether this new species should form part of the homo genus. This would require them to separate fact from fiction and opinion.

This knowledge that had been acquired could then be APPLIED to their problem of deciding when this species lived, why it deposited its dead into a narrow cave and how they are able to fit into our family tree and become part of the Homo genus.

Humans believed for centuries that they had been the only species to bury their dead, until the discovery of Homo Naledi. They gathered information from multiple sources and scientists for two years to find the most relevant information about this new discovery. Before publishing their findings, the scientist involved would have had to ASSESS the process they went through, and decide on whether they could have done better in analysing the information gathered and whether these results would have affected the outcome of their discovery.


Figure 3: Dinaledi skeletal specimens (Berger et al., 2015)



Anon. 2015. Digital Citizenship. Module Manual. The Independent Institute of Education: unpublished.

Berger, L., Hawks, J., de Ruiter, D., Churchill, S., Schmid, P., Delezene, L., Kivell, T., Garvin, H., Williams, S., DeSilva, J., Skinner, M., Musiba, C., Cameron, N., Holliday, T., Harcourt-Smith, W., Ackermann, R., Bastir, M., Bogin, B., Bolter, D., Brophy, J., Cofran, Z., Congdon, K., Deane, A., Dembo, M., Drapeau, M., Elliott, M., Feuerriegel, E., Garcia-Martinez, D., Green, D., Gurtov, A., Irish, J., Kruger, A., Laird, M., Marchi, D., Meyer, M., Nalla, S., Negash, E., Orr, C., Radovcic, D., Schroeder, L., Scott, J., Throckmorton, Z., Tocheri, M., VanSickle, C., Walker, C., Wei, P. and Zipfel, B. (2015). Homo naledi , a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. eLife, [online] 4. Available at: [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Natural History Museum, United Kingdom, (2015). Comparison of skull features of Homo naledi and other early human species. [image] Available at: [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Photograph Mark Thiessen, N. and ELLIOT ROSS, (2015). This Face Changes the Human Story. But How?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 May 2016].

Room, N. (2015). New Species of Human Relative Discovered in South African Cave. [online] National Geographic Society Press Room. Available at: [Accessed 23 May 2016].

YouTube. (2016). Антропологи официально представили новый древний вид человека. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 May 2016].

Q.1.3. Elements of Digital Citizenship

The9 Elements of Digital Citizenship-2



Canva. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2016].

Q.1.2. Techno-Economic Paradigm



Figure 1: Server Network Cables (Public Domain Pictures, 2016)

A paradigm can be defined as, “a pattern of something; a pattern or model” (Wiki, 2016)

When new technology is introduced many people are hesitant as the change leads to uncertainty. Many people prefer to use methods that they have always been using because they are comfortable with it and they understand it.

It takes time before people can start to learn to trust and work new technology and before businesses can start seeing a return on their investment.

We can develop from this, that new advancements in technology will only be accepted and trusted after a certain period of time because people need time to learn and adapt before they see the brilliance of the innovation. (IIE, 2015)



Anon. 2015. Digital Citizenship. Module Manual. The Independent Institute of Education: unpublished.

Public Domain Pictures, (2016). Server Network Cables. [image] Available at: [Accessed 25 May 2016].

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